在化学的分类中，有几种不同的类型。本报告的研究课题是水溶液中的酸碱反应。法国化学家安托万·拉瓦锡是1776年第一个研究酸碱反应的人。最近，阿伦尼乌斯(Arrhenius)和布朗斯特德·劳里(Bronsted Lowry)对酸和碱的概念进行了进一步的阐述，他们定义了酸和碱的概念。根据Bronsted- Lowry对酸和碱的定义，酸是一种物质，它在溶液中“贡献”一个质子(或一个H+离子)给水，而碱是一种物质，它在溶液2中“借用”一个H+离子。当酸提供这个质子时，它和水分子结合形成H3O+或水合氢离子，当碱借用一个质子时，水分子变成氢氧根离子，OH – 1。当酸和碱被中和时，这个过程就发生了。在中和反应中，最重要的是酸的物质的量等于相应碱的物质的量。酸都有共轭碱，也就是它们在水里的反应，它们要么强，要么弱。共轭酸碱对是通过一个质子的得失而相互联系的。每个酸碱反应都有两个酸碱对。有些酸比其他的更擅长奉献。如果它们的质子数非常高(100%)，那么它们就被称为强酸。然而，当碱很容易接受质子时，它们就被称为强碱。强酸与它们的共轭碱完全反应，而弱酸在水中不发生反应而形成平衡。当强酸被放入水中时，它们立即变成H3O+。因此，像HCl这样的酸以H3O+的形式存在于水中。
Within the divisions of chemistry, there are several distinct types. The subject of study within this report is acid-base reactions in aqueous solution. Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist, was the first to study acid-base reactions within 1776 1. More recently, the conceptualization of acids and bases has been refined by scientists Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry, who defined the idea of what an acid and base were. According to the Bronsted- Lowry definition of acids and bases, an acid is a substance that “donates” a proton (or an H+ ion) to water when in solution, and a base is a substance that “borrows” an H+ ion when in solution 2. When an acid donates this proton, it bonds with a water molecule and creates an H3O+ or Hydronium ion, and when a base borrows a proton, the water molecule changes to a Hydroxide ion, OH– 1. When an acid and a base are mixed a neutralization, the process occurs. Within a neutralization reaction, it is paramount that the moles of the acid are equal to the moles of the corresponding base. Acids all have a conjugate base, which is what they react to in water, and they are either strong or weak. Conjugate acid-base pairs are related to one another through the gain or loss of one proton. Every acid-base reaction will have two acid-base pairs. Some acids are better at donating than others. If they donate really well (100% of their protons,) then they are called strong acids. Whereas, when bases accept the protons readily, they are called strong bases. Strong acids completely react to their conjugate bases, while weak acids do not react to completion in water and form equilibrium 1. When strong acids are put into water, they go immediately to H3O+. Therefore, an acid like HCl exists in water as H3O+.
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